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Unit (2020)

Information on this page, including unit offerings, is from the 2020 academic year.

Radiography: Principles and Positioning (CHI421)

Organisational Unit Psychology, Counselling, Exercise Science and Chiropractic
Credit Points 4
Description Expands on principles discussed in years 2/3 relating to image production for most common types of imaging modalities and essential knowledge and skills needed for producing high quality diagnostic radiographs. Covers principles of radiation biology, regulations and practices relating to safety and patient protection; addresses management of in-house radiographic facilities. Practical workshops focus on radiographic positioning for all anatomical regions relevant to chiropractic practice. Utilises equipment in preparation for application within the University's chiropractic clinic. Incorporates undergraduate research stream.
Unit Learning Outcomes On successful completion of the unit you should be able to:
1. Identify all components of the x-ray system, and explain their function within the imaging process;
2. Explain the basic principles of radiation and x-ray production;
3. Describe fully the common types of interactions of diagnostic x-rays with matter, and how these create or degrade the final image;
4. Discuss the concepts of grids, collimation, and filtration, including how they relate to image quality and patient protection, and apply these concepts to the clinical setting;
5. Discuss the different types of imaging screens and film, how they are used, and their relationship to each other;
6. Consistently apply the concepts of image quality control to initial image acquisition;
7. Assess image quality in different clinical situations and institute the necessary changes to improve quality;
8. Show ease of use with the functions and operation of radiographic and processing equipment;
9. Demonstrate an ability to consistently and accurately integrate all sequences in the process of acquiring radiographic imaging of all musculoskeletal body regions, including skull and chest;
10. Explain the biological effects of radiation in humans as discussed in class;
11. Safely and consistently apply the concepts of radiation safety and patient protection in the clinical setting, including being able to confidently inform patients of radiation safety issues;
12. Design and operate x-ray facilities which meet State and Commonwealth standards;
13. Discuss the basic principles that underlie the common special imaging procedures, and the radiation safety issues that apply to each procedure;
14. Complete the required milestone for the research streaming project.
Timetabled Learning Activities Lectures/workshops: 4 hours per week:
3 hours on theoretical information regarding the generation of x-rays, x-ray interaction with matter, production of diagnostic images, and the basic workings of other types of diagnostic imaging such as CT, MRI and ultrasound. These theory lectures also include the biological effects of radiation, radiation safety, and imaging decision-making.
1 hour is a lecture on the radiographic positions to be undertaken each week.

Laboratories/practicals: 2 hours per week:
1 hour tutor-driven simulated radiographic positioning.
1 hour small group (5 or fewer) student-driven guided simulated radiographic positioning, including calculating x-ray beam factors individually for patients.
Unit Learning Experiences The approach to learning in this unit is blended, with didactic lectures, lab demonstrations, then interactive, student-driven lab feedback sessions. The lectures are 4 hours per week, 3 on radiographic principles, 1 on radiographic positioning. The labs consist of 1 hour of demonstration of positioning, then 1 hour of the student-driven sessions practising the positions just shown, with continuous feedback from instructors. Students are in one group for the lectures, then are broken in to 3 groups for lab demonstrations, and finally into 9 smaller groups, each with its own radiographic equipment for the student-driven sessions. Lecture presentations as well as additional written material are available on LMS. Students are encouraged to practice as much as necessary to master the positioning skills, and the lab is made available to them at all times during the trimester through arrangements with Security.
Assessment Assessments evaluate the theoretical information on the principles of radiography, its application to the practical, and also the practice of radiography as it is commonly undertaken in chiropractic offices. The theory assessments are written, computer-based, multiple-choice exams. The practical assessments are viva exams in which students position simulated patients and work out radiographic factors as if they were taking actual radiographs. The vivas are simulations that are as close as possible to taking radiographs without exposing anyone to ionising radiation.

Formative Web-based quizzes: 0%
Mid-semester Practical Quiz: 20%
Mid-semester Theory Quiz: 15%
Final Theory Examination: 30%
Final Practical Examination: 30%
Research stream: 5%
Prerequisites Completion of the BSc Chiropractic or permission from the Academic Chair.
Internet Access RequirementsMurdoch units normally include an online component comprising materials, discussions, lecture recordings and assessment activities. All students, regardless of their location or mode of study, need to have access to and be able to use computing devices with browsing capability and a connection to the Internet via Broadband (Cable, ADSL or Mobile) or Wireless. The Internet connection should be readily available and allow large amounts of data to be streamed or downloaded (approximately 100MB per lecture recording). Students also need to be able to enter into online discussions and submit assignments online.


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